The nature of scientific discovery means that no single study is going to be completely definitive, and that research is always evolving: every study leads to further questions and opportunities to build on, clarify, or caveat results.
Although headlines often sensationalize study results, most cognitive training studies look at very specific circumstances: does this particular type of training work with this unique group of people to improve this specific outcome?
So keeping this in mind, here are three key questions Dr. Schafer recommends asking about any study:
Who were the participants or subjects of the study, and how many participants were involved?
What did the participants actually do?
What was the study actually measuring?
By asking these questions, it's a lot easier to understand the nuances of research findings, rather than just relying on the headlines.